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13 Apr 2021

Policy development process: phase 1

On Sunday I blogged about preparing four new 'topic-specific' information security policy templates for SecAware. Today I'm writing about the process of preparing a policy template.

First of all, the fact that I have four titles means I already have a rough idea of what the policies are going to cover (yes, there's a phase zero). 'Capacity and performance management', for instance, is one requested by a customer - and fair enough. As I said on Sunday, this is a legitimate information risk and security issue with implications for confidentiality and integrity as well as the obvious availability of information. In my professional opinion, the issue is sufficiently significant to justify senior management's concern, engagement and consideration (at least). Formulating and drafting a policy is one way to crystallise the topic in a form that can be discussed by management, hopefully leading to decisions about what the organisation should do. It's a prompt to action.

At this phase in the drafting process, I am focused on explaining things to senior management in such a way that they understand the topic area, take an interest, think about it, and accept that it is worth determining rules in this area. The most direct way I know of gaining their understanding and interest is to describe the matter 'in business terms'. Why does 'capacity and performance management' matter to the business? What are the strategic and operational implications? More specifically, what are the associated information risks? What kinds of incident involving inadequate capacity and performance can adversely affect the organization?

Answering such questions is quite tough for generic policy templates lacking the specific business context of a given organisation or industry, so we encourage customers to customise the policy materials to suit their situations. For instance:

  • An IT/cloud service company would probably emphasise the need to maintain adequate IT capacity and performance for its clients and for its own business operations, elaborating on the associated IT/cyber risks.
  • A healthcare company could mention health-related risk examples where delays in furnishing critical information to the workers who need it could jeopardise treatments and critical care.
  • A small business might point out the risks to availability of its key workers, and the business implications of losing its people (and their invaluable knowledge and experience i.e. information assets) due to illness/disease, resignation or retirement. COVID is a very topical illustration.
  • An accountancy or law firm could focus on avoiding issues caused by late or incomplete information - perhaps even discussing the delicate balance between those two aspects (e.g. there are business situations where timeliness trumps accuracy, and vice versa).

The policy templates briefly discuss general risks and fundamental principles in order to orient customers in the conceptual space, stimulating them (we hope) to think of situations or scenarios that are relevant to their organisations, their businesses or industries, and hence to their management.

'Briefly' is an important point: the discussion in this blog piece is already lengthier and more involved than would be appropriate for the background or introductory section of a typical policy template. It's easy for someone as passionate and opinionated as me to waffle-on around the policy topic area, not so easy to write succinctly and remain focused ... which makes policy development a surprisingly slow, laborious and hence costly process, given that the finished article may be only 3 or 4 pages. It's not simply a matter of wordsmithing: distilling any topic down to its essentials takes research and consideration. What must be included, and what can we afford to leave out? Which specific angles will stimulate senior managers to understand and accept the premise that 'something must be done'?

OK, that's it for today. Must press on - policy templates to write! I'll expand on the next phase of the policy development process soon - namely, how we flesh out the 'something that must be done' into explicit policy statements.

11 Apr 2021

Infosec policy development

We're currently preparing some new information risk and security policies for SecAware.com.  It's hard to find gaps in the suite of ~80 policy templates already on sale (!) but we're working on these four additions:

  1. Capacity and performance management: usually, an organization's capacity for information processing is managed by specialists in IT and HR.  They help general management optimise and stay on top of information processing performance too.  If capacity is insufficient and/or performance drops, that obviously affects the availability of information ... but it can harm the quality/integrity and may lead to changes that compromise confidentiality, making this an information security issue.  The controls in this policy will include engineering, performance monitoring, analysis/projection and flexibility, with the aim of increasing the organisation's resilience. It's not quite as simple as 'moving to the cloud', although that may be part of the approach.

  2. Information transfer: disclosing/sharing information with, and obtaining information from, third party organisations and individuals is so commonplace, so routine, that we rarely even think about it.  This policy will outline the associated information risks, mitigating controls and other relevant approaches.

  3. Vulnerability disclosure: what should the organisation do if someone notifies it of vulnerabilities or other issues in its information systems, websites, apps and processes? Should there be mechanisms in place to facilitate, even encourage notification? How should issues be addressed?  How does this relate to penetration testing, incident management and assurance?  Lots of questions to get our teeth into!

  4. Clear desks and screens: this is such a basic, self-evident information security issue that it hardly seems worth formulating a policy. However, in the absence of policy and with no 'official' guidance, some workers may not appreciate the issue or may be too lazy/careless to do the right thing. These days, with so many people working from home, the management oversight and peer pressure typical in corporate office settings are weak or non-existent, so maybe it is worth strengthening the controls by reminding workers to tidy up their workplaces and log off.  It's banale, not hard! 
The next release of ISO/IEC 27002 will call these "topic-specific information security policies" focusing on particular issues and/or groups of people in some detail, whereas the organisation's "information security policy" is an overarching, general, high-level framework laying out (among other things) the fundamental principles. Our corporate information security policy template is a mature product that already includes a set of principles, so it may not need changes to comply with the updated ISO/IEC 27002 when published later this year or early next ... but we'll seize the opportunity to review it anyway. 

11 Mar 2021

NBlog Mar 11 - book review on "Cyber Strategy"

Cyber Strategy

Risk-driven Security and Resiliency

Authors: Carol A. Siegel and Mark Sweeney

Publisher: Auerbach/CRC Press

ISBN: 978-0-367-45817-1

Price: ~US$100 + shipping from Amazon


This book lays out a systematic process for developing corporate strategy in the area of cyber (meaning IT) security and resilience.  


  • An in-depth exposition on an extremely important topic
  • It emphasises risks to the business, to its information, and to its IT systems and networks, in that order
  • Systematic, well structured and well written, making it readable despite the fairly intense subject matter
  • Lots of diagrams, example reports and checklists to help put the ideas into action
  • Treating strategy development as a discrete project is an intriguing approach


  • Describes a fairly laborious, costly and inflexible approach, if taken literally and followed STEP-by-STEP
  • Implies a large corporate setting, with entire departments of professionals specializing and willing to perform or help out in various areas 
  • A little dogmatic: alternative approaches are not only possible but sufficient, appropriate or even better under various circumstances, but strategic options and choices are seldom mentioned
  • As described, the strategy planning horizon is very short
  • A defensive risk-averse strategic approach is implied, whereas more proactive, even offensive strategies can take things in a different direction: sometimes risks should not just be accepted but relished!
  • Little mention of architectural approaches e.g. business, information and IT architectures with risk and security implications and opportunities


Despite being described as a sequence of six STEPS (all in capitals, for some reason), there are of course way more than six activities to perform, and some are parallel or overlapping rather than sequential.

Reading, thinking about and implementing the ideas in this book should result in a soundly-constructed cyber strategy, generating far more value than the book's purchase price.  However, studying a book, even one as well-written as this one, is not sufficient to turn just anyone into a cyber strategist!  This stuff is hard.  The book makes it a little easier.

10 Jan 2021

Y2k + 20: risk, COVID and "the Internet issue"

It feels like 'just the other day' to me but do you recall "Y2k" and all that? 

Some of you reading this weren't even born back then, so here's a brief, biased and somewhat cynical recap.

For a long time prior to the year 2000, a significant number of software programmers had taken the same shortcut we all did back in "the 90s". Year values were often coded with just two decimal digits: 97, 98, 99 ... then 00, "coming ready or not!".

"Oh Oh" you could say. "OOps".

When year counters went around the clock and reset to zero, simplistic arithmetic operations (such as calculating when something last happened, or should next occur) would fail causing ... well, potentially causing issues, in some cases far more significant than others.

Failing coke can dispensers and the appropriately-named Hornby Dublo train sets we could have coped with but, trust me, you wouldn't want your heart pacemaker, new fangled fly-by-wire plane or the global air traffic control system to decide that it had to pack up instantly because it was nearly 100 years past its certified safe lifetime. Power grids, water and sewerage systems, transportation signalling, all manner of communications, financial, commercial and governmental services could all have fallen in a heap if the Y2k problems wasn't resolved in time, and this was one IT project with a hard, immutable deadline, at a time when IT project slippage was expected, almost obligatory. 

Tongue-in-cheek suggestions that we might shimmy smoothly into January 1st [19]9A were geekly-amusing but totally impracticable. 

In risk terms, the probability of Y2k incidents approached 100% certain and the personal or societal impacts could have been catastrophic under various credible scenarios - if (again) the Y2k monster wasn't slain before the new year's fireworks went off ... and, yes, those fancy public fireworks display automated ignition systems had Y2k failure modes too, along with the fire and emergency dispatch systems and vehicles. The combination of very high probability and catastrophic impact results in a risk up at the high end of a tall scale. 

So, egged-on by information security pro's and IT auditors (me, for instance), management took the risk seriously and invested significant resources into solving "the Y2k issue". 

Did you spot the subtle shift from "Y2k" to "the Y2k issue"? I'll circle back to that in just a moment. 

Individual Y2k programming updates were relatively straightforward on the whole with some interesting exceptions, mostly due to prehistoric IT systems still in use well past their best-before dates, with insurmountable hardware, software and wetware limitations. The sheer overwhelming scale of the Y2k problem was the real issue through. Simply finding all those IT systems was an enormous global challenge, let alone testing and where necessary fixing or replacing them all. The world discovered, during '98 and '99 (there I go again!) that rather few "computers" were as obvious as the beige boxes proliferating on desktops at the time, nor even the massive machines humming away in air conditioned sanctuaries known as "the mainframe". Counting the blue IBM labels was no longer considered an adequate form of computer stock-taking. Computers and chips were "everywhere", often embedded in places that were never intended or designed to be opened once sealed in place. It was almost as if they had been deliberately hidden. Conspiracy theories proliferated almost as fast as Y2k jokes. 

Flip forward 20 years and we see similar horrors unfolding today in the form of myriad IoT things and 'the cloud', so indistinct and unclear that people long since gave up trying to draw meaningful network diagrams - only now the year encoding aspect is the least of our security problems. But I digress. Back to the plot.

From what I saw, for reasons of expediency and ignorance, the general solution to "the Y2k problem" was to treat the superficial symptoms of an underlying disease that we still suffer today. We found and corrected Y2k issues in software. I believe the world as a whole missed a golden opportunity to change our software design, development, testing and maintenance processes to prevent Y2k-like issues ever arising again. Oh sure, some organizations implemented policies on date encoding, and presumably some were far-sighted enough to generalise the issue to all counters and maybe coding shortcuts etc. but, on the whole, we were far too busy baling out the hold to worry about where the ship was heading. Particularly during 99, we were in crisis mode, big time. I remember. I was there.

Instead of thinking of the Y2k work as an investment for a better future, it was treated as a necessary expense, a sunk cost. If you don't believe me, just ask to see your organisation's inventory containing pertinent details of every single IT device - the manufacturers, models, serial numbers, software and firmware revisions, latest test status, remediation/replacement plans and so on. We had all that back in 99. Oh wait, you have one? Really? So tell me, when was it last updated? How do you know, for sure, that it is reasonably comprehensive and accurate? Go ahead, show me the associated risk profiles and documented security architectures. Tell me about the IT devices used in your entire supply network, in your critical infrastructure, in everything your organisation depends upon. 

Make my day.

Even the government and defence industries would be very hard pressed to demonstrate leadership in this area.  

That's not all. Following widespread relief that January 1st 2000 had not turned out to be a cataclysmic global disaster, we slipped into a lull and all too soon "the Y2k problem" was being portrayed in the media as "the Y2k debacle". Even today, two decades on, some pundits remain adamant that the whole thing was fake news created by the IT industry to fleece customers of money.

It was a no-win situation for the IT industry: if things had gone horribly wrong, IT would definitely have copped the blame. Despite the enormous amount of hard work and expense to ensure that things did not go horribly wrong, IT still cops the blame. 

Hey, welcome to the life of every information risk and security professional! If we do our jobs well, all manner of horribly costly and disruptive incidents are prevented ... which leaves our organisations, management and society at large asking themselves "What have the infosec pros ever done for us? OK, apart from identifying, and evaluating, and treating information risks ...".

For what it's worth, I'm very happy to acknowledge the effort that went into mounting an almost unbelievably successful Y2k rescue mission - and yet, at the same time, we were saved from a disaster of our own making, a sorry tale from history that we are destined to repeat unless things change.

As I mentioned, two major areas of risk have come to the fore in the past decade, namely the information risks associated with IoT and cloud computing. They are both global in scope and potentially disastrous in nature, and worse still they are both linked through the Internet - the big daddy of all information risks facing the planet right now. 

The sheer scale of the Internet problem is the real issue. Simply finding all those Internet connections and dependencies is an enormous global challenge, let alone testing and where necessary securing or isolating them all.

You do have a comprehensive, risk-assessed, supply-chain-end-to-end inventory of all your Internet dependencies, including everyone now working from home under COVID lockdown, right? Yeah, right.

If you don't see the parallel with Y2k, then you really aren't looking ... and that's another thing: how come "the Internet issue|problem|risk|crisis ..." isn't all over the news?

Yes, obviously I appreciate that COVID19 is dominating the headlines, another global incident with massive impacts. The probability and impact of global pandemics has been increasing steadily for decades in line with the ascendance of global travel, increasing mobility and cultural blending. Although the risk was known, we failed to prevent a major incident ... and yet, strangely, the health industry isn't in the firing line, possibly because we are utterly dependent on them to dig us out of the cesspit, despite the very real personal risks they face every day. They are heroes. IT and infosec pro's aren't. I get it. Too bad.

OK, that's enough of a rant for today. I will expand on "the Internet issue|problem|risk|crisis" in a future episode. Meanwhile, I'll click the Publish button in just a moment, while it still works.